Eras

Era’s & Periods in England History:

The Ancient World – (4000 BC – 476 AD)
The Ancient era begins with the biblical period and ends at the climax of the Roman period in 476, with the dethronement of the last of the Caesars, Romulus Augustus. According to the genealogies recorded in the Bible, human civilization began around 4000 B.C.

Medieval Period – (476 AD – 14th century)
The Middle Ages (adjectival form: medieval) was a period of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The period followed the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476, and preceded the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period in a three-period division of history: Classic, Medieval, and Modern. The term “Middle Ages” was coined in the 15th century and reflects the view that this period was a deviation from the path of classical learning, a path supposedly reconnected by Renaissance scholarship.

Plantagenet Era – (1126 – 1485)
In total, fifteen Plantagenet monarchs, including those belonging to cadet branches, ruled England from 1154 until 1485. The initial branch ruled from Henry II of England until the deposition of Richard II of England in 1399. After that, a junior branch, the House of Lancaster, ruled for some fifty years, before clashing with another branch, the House of York, in a civil war known as the Wars of the Roses over control of England.

The Renaissance Era – (1450 – 1600)
The Renaissance (meaning to be ‘born again’) was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Florence in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historic era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not uniform across Europe, this is a general use of the term. As a cultural movement, it encompassed a resurgence of learning based on classical sources, the development of linear perspective in painting, and gradual but widespread educational reform. It is perhaps best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term “Renaissance man”.

Tudor Period – (1485–1558)
The Tudor period usually refers to the period between 1485 and 1603, specifically in relation to the history of England. This coincides with the rule of the Tudor dynasty in England whose first monarch was Henry VII (1457 – 1509). The term is often used more broadly to include Elizabeth I’s reign (1558 – 1603), although this is often treated separately as the Elizabethan era.

Elizabethan Era – (1558–1603)
The Elizabethan era was a time associated with Queen Elizabeth I’s reign (1558–1603) and is often considered to be the golden age in English history. It was the height of the English Renaissance and saw the flowering of English poetry, music and literature. This was also the time during which Elizabethan theater flourished, and William Shakespeare and many others composed plays that broke free of England’s past style of plays and theater. It was an age of exploration and expansion abroad, while back at home, the Protestant Reformation became more acceptable to the people, most certainly after the Spanish Armada was repulsed. It was also the end of the period when England was a separate realm before its royal union with Scotland.

Stuart Period – (1603–1714)
The Stuart period of British history usually refers to the period between 1603 and 1714 and sometimes from 1371 in Scotland. This coincides with the rule of the House of Stuart, whose first monarch was James VI of Scotland. The death of Queen Elizabeth I without any heirs, last of the Tudors, left England without any English King or Queen. The English were now ruled by a Scottish king. The regicide of King Charles I brought a temporary end to the rule by the Stuarts. England then became a Republic under Oliver Cromwell. The Stuarts were then restored to the throne under Charles II in 1660. The period ended with the death of Queen Anne and accession of George I from the House of Hanover.

Jacobean Era – (1603–1625)
The Jacobean era refers to the period in English and Scottish history that coincides with the reign of King James VI (1567–1625) of Scotland, who also inherited the crown of England in 1603. The Jacobean era succeeds the Elizabethan era and precedes the Caroline era, and specifically denotes a style of architecture, visual arts, decorative arts, and literature that is predominant of that period.

Caroline Era – (1625–1642)
The Caroline era refers to the era in English and Scottish history during the Stuart period (1603—1714) that coincided with the reign of Charles I (1625—1642). The Caroline era followed the Jacobean era, the reign of Charles’s father James I (1603–1625); it was followed by the English Civil War (1642–1651) and the English Interregnum (1651–1660).

The Baroque Era – (1600 – 1700)

Georgian Era – (1714–1811)
The Georgian era is a period of British history, normally defined as including the reigns of the Kings of the United Kingdom of the House of Hanover: George I, George II, George III, and George IV, i.e. covering the period from 1714 to 1830, (with the sub-period of the Regency, defined by the Regency of George IV as Prince of Wales during the illness of his father George III). Often, the short reign of King William IV (1830 to 1837) is also included.

British Regency – (1811–1830)
The Regency era in the United Kingdom is the period between 1811 — when King George III was deemed unfit to rule and his son, the Prince of Wales, ruled as his proxy as Prince Regent — and 1820, when the Prince Regent became George IV on the death of his father.

Victorian Era – (1837–1901)
The Victorian era of the United Kingdom was the period of Queen Victoria’s reign from June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. The reign was a long period of prosperity for the British people, as profits gained from the overseas British Empire, as well as from industrial improvements at home. Some scholars extend the beginning of the period—as defined by a variety of sensibilities and political games that have come to be associated with the Victorians—back five years to the passage of the Reform Act 1832.

Edwardian Era – (1901–1919)
The Edwardian era or Edwardian period in the United Kingdom is the period covering the reign of King Edward VII, 1901 to 1910. The death of Queen Victoria in January 1901 and the succession of her son, Edward, marked the start of a new century and the end of the Victorian era. While Victoria had shunned society, Edward was the leader of a fashionable elite which set a style influenced by the art and fashions of continental Europe—perhaps because of the King’s fondness for travel. The era was marked by significant shifts in politics as sections of society which had been largely excluded from wielding power in the past, such as common laborers and women, became increasingly politicized.

Post Modern & Modern –  (1920 – present)

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